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Mehmed The Conquerer

Ottoman Sultans. Who was Mehmed II The Conquerer (Fatih Sultan Mehmet)?

The 7th Ottoman Sultan, Mehmet II (1432–1481) who conquered Constantinople in 1453 when he was 21 years old. After conquering Consantinople, he was called Fatih (Conquerer) as well as Ceaser or Kayser-i Rum (Emperor of Rome) in addition to his other titles. Therefore, he claimed the legacy of the Roman Empire.

Facts & Figures

  • Fatih was 12 years old when he was abdicated the throne?
  • He spoke 7 languages including Turkish, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian and Latin?
  • He wrote poems with the name of “Avni”?
  • He had a private library made from books in Turkish, Arabic, Farsi, Latin and Greek?
  • Ten years after the conquest of Constantinople, he visited the site of Troy and boasted that he had avenged the Trojans by having conquered the Byzantine Empire?
  • He was in conflict with Vlad III, Vlad the Impaler or Dracula, who was originated by Bram Stoker to write the famous book, Dracula?
  • He carried the Roman administration to the Ottoman State by introducing a digest of laws and his laws remained until the reforms in the 19th century?
  • He gathered Italian artists, humanists and Greek scholars at his court?
  • He was the first Ottoman Sultan who had his portrait painted? He called Gentile Bellini from Venice to paint his portrait.
  • He provided independence and tolerance to the ones who are from another religion, belief and race by declaring an oath firman and granted it to Angjeo Zvizdovic of the Franciscan Catholic Monastery in Bosnia after the conquest of Bosnia Herzegovina on May 28, 1463? It is one of the oldest documents on religious freedom. In 1971, the United Nations published a translation of the document in all the official U.N. languages: “I, the Sultan Khan the Conqueror, hereby declare the whole world that, The Bosnian Franciscans granted with this sultanate firman are under my protection. And I command that: No one shall disturb or give harm to these people and their churches! They shall live in peace in my state. These people, who have become emigrants, shall have security and liberty. They may return to their monasteries which are located in the borders of my state. No one from my empire notable, viziers, clerks or my maids will break their honour or give any harm to them! No one shall insult, put in danger or attack these lives, properties, and churches of these people! Also, what and those these people have brought from their own countries have the same rights… By declaring this firman I swear on my sword by the holy name of Allah who has created the ground and sky, Allah’s prophet Mohammed, and 124.000 former prophets that; no one from my citizens will react or behave the opposite of this firman!”

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