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History Of Istanbul

History of Istanbul

Istanbul city guides. Brief history of Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul city guide. History of Istanbul, one of the top destinations in the world, connecting Europa and Asia, capital of the two great empires in history, Ottoman and Eastern Roman Empire…

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Here is the brief history of Istanbul, Turkey

  • 7000 BC Neolithic fishing settlements in Kadıköy, Pendik and Yarımburgaz.
  • 750 BC Greeks sailed through the Bosphorus.
  • 667 BC Byzantium was founded.
  • 676 BC Greek colony of Chalcedon founded in Kadıköy today.
  • 64 BC Pompeius captured Byzantium and it became a province in the Roman Empire.
  • 324 Constantine became emperor of the Roman Empire.
  • 326 Constantine founded Constantinople and incorporated Byzantium into a new city.
  • 330 Constantine made it the new capital of the Roman Empire.
  • 395 Emperor Theodosius I died. The Empire was divided into an eastern and western half. The eastern half was centered in Constantinople.
  • 408 During the reign of Emperor Theododius II the construction began on the new city walls.
  • 476 The fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.
  • 532 Nika riots in Constantinople. Up to 30.000 people were killed in the Hippodrome.
  • 537 Construction of Hagia Sophia, ordered by Emperor Justinian, was completed.
  • 745 – 7 Bubonic plague wipes out one third of the city.
  • 976 – 1025 Reign of Byzantine Emperor Basil II under whose reign the Empire reached its greatest height.
  • 1071 Selçuk army conquered Anatolia.
  • 1096 The First Crusade reached Constantinople, helped recapture lands lost to the Selçuks.
  • 1202 An army gathered in Venice for the Fourth Crusade.
  • 1204 The Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople.
  • 1261 Micahel VIII Palaeologus recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire and transformed the Empire of Nicaea into restored Byzantine Empire.
  • 1301 Osman I founded the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1321 This year marked the start of a devastating 33-year Byzantine civil war.
  • 1348 The Galata Tower was built to watch over the Pera district.
  • 1394 – 1442 Ottomans besieged Constantinople four times.
  • 1453 Mehmet II conquered Constantinople and declared it the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1455 The construction of the Grand Bazaar started.
  • 1478 The Topkapı palace was completed.
  • 1492 Spain’s exiled Jewish population was invited by Beyazıt II to settle in Istanbul.
  • 1517 Selim the Grim captured Cairo and appointed himself Caliph of all Islam.
  • 1520 – 1566 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. Ottoman Empire reached its zenith.
  • 1556 Inauguration of the Süleymaniye mosque by architect Sinan. Beginning of “the rule of women”.
  • 1616 After eight years of construction, the Blue Mosque was finished.
  • 1622 Janissaries murdered Osman II.
  • 1699 The loss of Hungary in the Treaty of Karlowitz marked the beginning the Ottoman Empire withdrawal from Europe.
  • 1651 – 1783 Janissaries revolted 11 more times.
  • 1778 Plague wipes out one third of the city.
  • 1807 Big part of the city destroyed during the Janissary revolt vs Mahmut II.
  • 1826 Janissaries destroyed by Mahmut II.
  • 1845 The first wooden Galata bridge spaned the Golden Horn.
  • 1853 Dolmabahçe Palace is completed.
  • 1854 The first Istanbul stock exchange opened.
  • 1854 – 1856 Crimean Was and revolts against Ottoman rule in the Balkans.
  • 1856 Abdülmecit I left Tokapı Palace and moved to the new Dolmabahçe Palace.
  • 1875 The Tünel-metro, the third metro worldwide was inaugurated in Galata.
  • 1877 First Ottoman Parliament.
  • 1878 Russians siezed Balkans. Abdülhamit closed parliament and ruled by decree.
  • 1885 The Orient Express pulls into Istanbul.
  • 1899 Young Turks groups formed in military.
  • 1908 First elections. CUP emerges victorious.
  • 1912 First Balkan War.
  • 1913 Second Balkan War.
  • 1914 Ottomans entered WWI on German side.
  • 1915 Allied forces landed in Gallipoli but had to retreat.
  • 1919 Atatürk declared independent Turkey.
  • 1919 – 1922 British and French troops occupied Istanbul.
  • 1920 Turkish Parliament was formed in Ankara.
  • 1922 After two years of fighting, Turks forced Greece out of Izmir. The Sultanate was abolished.
  • 1923 Allied occupation of Istanbul ended. Ankara declared capital of new republic.
  • 1928 Istanbul became the official name.
  • 1935 – 1941 Turkey provided a safe haven for Jews fleeing the German Reich.
  • 1936 Hagia Sofia became a museum. Restoration started.
  • 1938 Atatürk died at 09:05 on November 10th in the Dolmabahçe Palace.
  • 1950 The first democratically elected Turkish government.
  • 1960 Prime Minister Adnan Menderes deposed in coup, hanged following year.
  • 1971 Instability in the government and extremism prompted a second army coup.
  • 1973 First suspension bridge over the Bosphorus was built.
  • 1980 Warring between left and right groups prompted military coup. Over a 100.000 arrested.
  • 1983 Growth of shanty towns on outskirts of Istanbul moves in from rural areas.
  • 1999 The population of Istanbul quarupled in 20 years time from 2.7 million in 1980 to 11.8 million. On August 17, an earthquake devastated parts of İstanbul and North-west Turkey. Over 17,000 people died.
  • 2002 Turkey endend third in the Fifa World Cup. AKP, under the leadership Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received 34% of the votes in the 2002 general elections.
  • 2003 Turkey wins the Eurovision Song Contest with “Every way that I can” by Sertab Erener.
  • 2005 Introduction of the New Turkish Lira (YTL) 6 zero’s on the bank notes are dropped.
  • . . .

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