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Turkish Language Basics

Turkish Language Basics





Do you want to start learning Turkish language and want to know the Turkish language basics? If you are a complete beginner and want to start learning Turkish with the basics of Turkish language, we prepared a short lessons of the Turkish language basics including the most basic grammar points of the Turkish language to have an idea.

1. Persons in Turkish Language

Learn the persons in Turkish.

  • I BEN
  • You SEN
  • He / She / It O

There is no gender in Turkish.

  • We BİZ
  • You SİZ (Plural “You” & Formal “You”)
  • They ONLAR

You don’t need to use the persons in Turkish (because there are personal suffixes attached to the verbs) unless you want to emphasize the person.

2. There is/are in Turkish Language

The word “Var” is “There is” in Turkish. It is always used at the end of the sentence and it doesn’t take any suffix.

THERE IS a problem. Bir problem VAR.

“Var” becomes “Yok” for “There isn’t/aren’t”.

THERE ISN’T a problem. Bir problem YOK.

“Var” becomes “Var mı?” for “Is/Are there?”

IS THERE a problem? Bir problem VAR MI?

The word “Var” is also used as “Have (for possession)” in Turkish.

3. Numbers in Turkish Language

Learn the numbers from 1 – 10 in Turkish.

1 BİR 2 İKİ 3 ÜÇ 4 DÖRT 5 BEŞ 6 ALTI 7 YED 8 SEKİZ 9 DOKUZ 10 ON

4. Demonstrative Adjecives in Turkish Language

Learn the demonstrative adjectives (This & That) in Turkish.

  • This BU
  • These BUNLAR
  • THIS is a car. BU bir araba.
  • THESE are cars. BUNLAR araba.
  • That O
  • Those ONLAR
  • THAT is a car. O bir araba.
  • THOSE are cars. ONLAR araba.

There is another word for “That”: ŞU, which means “That one”

There is another word for “Those”: ŞUNLAR, which means “Those ones”

5. Question Words in Turkish Language

Learn the wh- quesons words (Who, What, How) in Turkish.

  • Who KİM
  • WHO is he? O KİM?
  • What NE
  • WHAT is this? Bu NE?
  • What is it? O NE?
  • How NASIL
  • HOW is this? Bu NASIL?
  • HOW is the weather? Hava NASIL?

Now learn more wh- questions (when, where) in Turkish.

  • Where NEREDE
  • WHERE is Ali? Ali NEREDE?
  • WHERE is the bank? Banka NEREDE?
  • When NE ZAMAN
  • WHEN is the film? Film NE ZAMAN?
  • WHEN is the party? Parti NE ZAMAN?

6. Word Order in Turkish Language

Learn the basic word order in Turkish.

WHO – WHAT – VERB

  • Ali is watching a film. Ali film izliyor.
  • Ali is drinking a coffee. Ali kahve içiyor.
  • Ali is eating a pizza. Ali pizza yiyor.

“Time” and “Place” comes a’er the person.

WHO – When – Where – WHAT – VERB

  • Ali is watching a film at the cinema. Ali şimdi sinemada film izliyor.
  • Ali is drinking a coffee at the coffee. Ali şimdi kafede kahve içiyor.
  • Ali is eating a pizza at the restaurant. Ali şimdi restoranda pizza yiyor.

If you need to add other elements in the sentence (like “with Ali, for Ali, about Ali” etc), they all comes a fter the person of the sentences.

7. Yes / No Questions in Turkish Language

Learn the yes/no questions (Is it / Are you / Do you etc) in Turkish.

The question word for yes/no questions is Mİ (and the other variaons MI, MÜ, MU?). This is not a suffix, a separate word but the vowel harmony Works with this word.

  • It’s OK. Tamam.
  • Is it OK? Tamam MI?
  • The film is nice. Film güzel.
  • Is the film nice? Film güzel Mİ?
  • There is a problem. Problem var.
  • Is there a problem? Problem var MI?

This word is also used with the verbs and verb tenses.

  • Ali knows Turkish. Ali Türkçe biliyor.
  • Does Ali know Turkish? Ali Türkçe biliyor MU?

8.Basic Objects in Turkish Language

Learn the basic objects in Turkish.

  • Book KİTAP
  • House EV
  • Car ARABA
  • Money PARA
  • Woman KADIN
  • Man ADAM
  • Child ÇOCUK

9. Basic Adjectives in Turkish Language

Learn the basic adjecves in Turkish.

  • Good İYİ
  • Beautiful, nice GÜZEL
  • Big BÜYÜK
  • Small KÜÇÜK
  • Slow YAVAŞ

Learn the adjective and noun phrases.

  • House EV
  • A house BİR EV
  • A big house BÜYÜK BİR EV
  • Film FİLM
  • A film BİR FİLM
  • A nice film GÜZEL BİR FİLM

10. Basic Verbs & Verb Forms in Turkish Language

Learn the infinitive form of the verbs.

  • To do YAPMAK
  • To go GİTMEK
  • To know BİLMEK

Learn the positive commands in Turkish. Simply drop the – mek / mak (infinitive) suffix.

  • Yapmak YAP.
  • Gitmek GİT.

Learn the negative commands in Turkish. Simply drop the – k at the end of the verb.

  • Yapmak Yap. YAPMA.
  • Gitmek Git. GİTME.

11. Turkish Alphabet

Learn the Turkish leers in the alphabet.

Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Ğğ Hh Iı İi Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr Ss Şş Tt Uu Üü Vv Yy Zz

  • X and Q doesn’t exist in Turkish alphabet.
  • C is pronounced as “g, j” (gin, jacket).
  • Ç is pronounced as “ch” (cheese).
  • Ğ is not pronounced. It makes the previous le*er longer.
  • I is pronounced as naon, target, bacon.
  • Ö is pronounced as bird, girl.
  • Ş is pronounced as “sh” (shop).
  • Ü is pronounced as student.

12. Vowel Harmony in Turkish Language

Learn the vowels in Turkish.

a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ö

There are two types of vowels in Turkish:

  1. Hard Vowels: a, ı, o, u (Vowels without dots)
  2. So/ Vowels: e, i, ö, ü (Vowels with dots)

The suffixes attached to the words should be harmonized. In other words;

  1. If the last vowel of a word is a hard vowel, the suffix (a*ached to the word) should take hard vowel.
  2. If the last vowel of a word is a so/ vowel, the suffix (a*ached to the word) should take so/ vowel.

For example, the suffix for “plural s” in English is – ler / lar. It has two variations:

ArabaLAR (carS)

We used “– lar” variaon of the suffix because the last vowel of the word is “a” a hard vowel.

EvLER (houseS)

We used “– ler” variaon of the suffix because the last vowel of the word is “e” a so’ vowel.

This is basicaly what is the vowel harmony in Turkish.

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