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Ottoman Sultans

History of the Ottoman Empire. Who are the Ottoman Sultans? The facts about the Ottoman Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire, members of the Ottoman (Osman) dynasty, ruled over the transcontinental empire from 1299 to its fall in 1922. The Ottoman Empire was one of the biggest empires spread from from Hungary in the north to Somalia in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iran in the east. The first Ottoman Sultan was Osman I (the namesake of the Empire) of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.

List of Ottoman Sultans

The Ottoman dynasty he founded lived for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans:

Osman I (1299-1326), Orhan I (1326-1359), Murad I (1359-1389), Beyazid I (1389-1402), Mehmed I (1403-1421), Murad II (1421-1451), Fatih Mehmed II (1451-1481), Beyazid II (1481-1512), Selim I (1512-1520), Süleyman I (1520-1566), Selim II (1566-1574), Murat III (1574-1595), Mehmed III (1595-1603), Ahmed I (1603-1617), Mustafa I (1617-1623), Osman II (1618-1622), Murat IV (1623-1640), Ibrahim I (1640-1648), Mehmed IV (1648-1687), Süleyman II (1687-1691), Ahmed II (1691-1695), Mustafa II (1695-1703), Ahmed III (1703-1730), Mahmud I (1730-1754), Osman III (1754-1757), Mustafa III (1757-1774), Abdülhamid I (1774-1789), Selim III (1789-1807), Mustafa IV (1807-1808), Mahmud II (1808-1839), Abdülmecid I (1839-1861), Abdülaziz I (1861-1876), Murat V (1876), Abdülhamid II (1876-1909), Mehmed V Resad (1909-1918), Mehmed VI Vahdettin (1918-1922)

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Mehmet II, Mehmed The Conqueror

Mehmed II (1432–1481) or Fatih Sultan Mehmed was the 7th Ottoman Sultan who is best known as the conqueror of Constantinople in 1453 when he was 21 years old. After conquering the city, he was called Fatih (Conqueror) as well as Ceaser or Kayser-i Rum (Emperor of Rome) in addition to his other titles and he claimed the legacy of the Roman Empire.

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Some facts about his life:

  • Fatih was 12 years old when he was abdicated the throne.
  • He spoke 7 languages including Turkish, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian and Latin.
  • He wrote poems with the name of “Avni”.
  • He had a private library made from books in Turkish, Arabic, Farsi, Latin and Greek.
  • Ten years after the conquest of Constantinople, he visited the site of Troy and boasted that he had avenged the Trojans by having conquered the Byzantine Empire.
  • He was in conflict with Vlad III, Vlad the Impaler or Dracula, who was originated by Bram Stoker to write the famous book, Dracula.
  • He carried the Roman administration to the Ottoman State by introducing a digest of laws and his laws remained until the reforms in the 19th century.
  • He gathered Italian artists, humanists and Greek scholars at his court. He was the first Ottoman Sultan who had his portrait painted. He called Gentile Bellini from Venice to paint his portrait.
  • He provided independence and tolerance to the ones who are from another religion, belief and race by declaring an oath firman and granted it to Angjeo Zvizdovic of the Franciscan Catholic Monastery in Bosnia after the conquest of Bosnia Herzegovina on May 28, 1463. It is one of the oldest documents on religious freedom.

In 1971, the United Nations published a translation of the document in all the official U.N. languages:

I, the Sultan Khan the Conqueror, hereby declare the whole world that, The Bosnian Franciscans granted with this sultanate firman are under my protection. And I command that: No one shall disturb or give harm to these people and their churches! They shall live in peace in my state. These people, who have become emigrants, shall have security and liberty. They may return to their monasteries which are located in the borders of my state. No one from my empire notable, viziers, clerks or my maids will break their honour or give any harm to them! No one shall insult, put in danger or attack these lives, properties, and churches of these people! Also, what and those these people have brought from their own countries have the same rights… By declaring this firman I swear on my sword by the holy name of Allah who has created the ground and sky, Allah’s prophet Mohammed, and 124.000 former prophets that; no one from my citizens will react or behave the opposite of this firman…

Facts about Ottoman Sultans

  • The first 6 sultans stayed in Bursa, the others in Istanbul.
  • After the 9th sultan (Selim I) sultans were also called “caliph” as well as “padişah/sultan”.
  • The sultan who lived longest during his reign was Orhan I. He was 78 years old when he died. The sultan who lived shortest during his reign was Osman II (Genç/Young Osman). He was murdered when he was 18 years old.
  • The oldest sultan who ascend the throne was Mehmet V. He was 65 years old when he became the sultan. The youngest sultan who ascend the throne was Mehmet IV. He was 7 years old when he became the sultan.
  • The sultan who was on the throne longest was Süleyman I (Kanuni, the Magnificient). His reign lasted 45 years, 11 months, 7 days. The shortest reign was Murat V. It lasted only 93 days.
  • Among the sultans, Murat III had the most children. He was considered to have 100-130 children.
  • Ibrahim I was called deli (crazy, insane).
  • Murat IV had 20.000 people executed in 7 years.
  • There were 203 grand vizier during the Ottoman Empire. 44 grand vizier were executed by the order of the sultans. Çandarlı Halil Paşa was the first vizier to be executed. He was executed by Mehmet II (Fatih, conquerer)
  • Most sultans were poets and they had knicknames: Murad II (Muradi) Mehmet II (Avni) Beyazıd II (Adni) Ahmet I (Bahti) Osman II (Farisi) Murat IV (Muradi) Mustafa II (İkbali) Ahmet III (Necip) Mahmut I (Sebkati) Mustafa III (Cihangir) Selim III (İlhami) Mahmut II (Adli)
  • Murat I was killed in the battefield, Mehmet II (Fatih/Conquerer) and Beyazit II was poisened, Osman II (Genç/Young), Selim III and Abdulaziz was murdered, Ibrahim I and Mustafa IV was executed by fetwa because they were insane.

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